how search engine works
how search engine works

.Search: to look out for something.

Ah, it’s so easy. Just Google it. Have you ever wondered that life would be so easy if we could search for everything in a search engine? Just like, looking out for misplaced socks or a misplaced mobile phone. Damn, it seems crazy, isn’t? Well that’s not possible as of now but I firmly believe that it will happen someday. Anyways, moving to the topic.

What is a Search Engine?

Search Engine is a web based program which facilitates the user with a facility of searching the query across the web. The search engine reverts back with the best searches possible.
More precisely, it identifies the keyword and searches for them in a database and get back with those to the user.
Most popular search engines are: Google, Yahoo, and Bing.

History of Search Engines.

“Archie” is considered to be the first ever search engine in the history of internet and was developed by Alan Emtage and peter j. Deutsch in the year 1990. The original name was “Archives” which was shortened to “Archie”. 
                                   

source: www.searchenginehistory.com
 “Archie” basically was a web based tool used to index FTP archives, facilitating the user to search for the specific file for the term.

FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol and is a standard network protocol (set of certain digital rules for data exchange with or within the systems.) used for transferring the files from the host to an another system.


After one year in 1991 “Archie” was followed by “Veronica” and “Jughead” which search file names indexed in the Gopher Index systems.

And the following search engines followed after “Veronica” and “Jughead” :-

Vlib(virtual library of the web): 1992
Excite: Feburary, 1993.
Word Wide Web Wanderer: June, 1993. It was basically the first known web robot.
AliWeb: October, 1993.
JumpStation: December, 1993.
Infoseek: January, 1994.
AltaVista: January, 1994.
E|net galaxy: January, 1994.
Web Crawler: April, 1994. First crawler that indexed entire pages.
Yahoo! Web directory : April, 1994. Created by David Fillo and Jerry Yang. Yahoo! Search engine: 2002.
Lycos: July, 1994.
LookSmart: 1995.
Google: January, 1996, the largest and most popular search engine as of now. Google is a successor of BackRub, which uses backlinking property to index the web pages. Developed by larry Page and Surgey Brin.

Hot Fact: In September 15, the domain “Google.com” was registered.

HotBot: May, 1996.
Ask.com: Initially, Ask Jeeves. April, 1997.
Yandex.ru: Russian based search engine. September 23, 1997
Bing: Initially MSN. July-September, 1998.  Bing came into existence in 2009. It was a rebranding of MSN.
AllTheWeb: May, 1999.
Gunhoo: new web directory. June 5, 1998.
Snap: October, 2005.
Cuil: June, 2008.
Blekko: November 1, 2010.

Now, how actually a search engine Works?

how search engine works
Infographics


There are two basic and main components/functions of a search engine in order to provide the most relevant result to the search query. These are: Crawling and Indexing.

Crawling: As the name suggests, the robots (more precisely, bots) by search engines crawls the web pages and sort them by looking over their content and taking many other factors into consideration.
Website owners have the capability of allowing or disallowing the search engine to crawl or not under the name of robots.txt file.

After crawling the search engine keep a track of it in a section named “THE INDEX”.

Indexing: Now, as the search query comes in. The Algorithms came into existence. They analyze the query and fetch the most relevant results from the “THE INDEX” section.

After that, the formulae’s and algorithms written by the top level brains out there rank the results considering many factors.

Hot Fact: As per Google, there are 200 such factors which plays a vital role in getting a post ranked.


And, finally the most relevant ranked results were provided to the user.

Hot Fact: As per Google is concerned, All these processes happens in a time span of 1/8th second.

What factors in a document makes a good match to the query?

1- Keyword frequency: This means that, how often that particular keyword which is in the search query has been encountered in the document. The appropriate amount of time it will be there, the more relevant document it will be.
Word Of Caution: Unnecessary keyword stuffing may lead to penalty.

2- Page Rank, Domain authority: more authority sites are preferred while ranking any document.

3- Proximity between the searched terms: It is often seen that, if the searched terms are lying at a closer distance to each other within a document, the more chances are there of it for getting ranked.

4- Appropriate positioning of the keyword: while positioning the keyword, always keep these things in mind:
in order to improve the found-ability of the document, the keyword should appear at these seven places:
1- Page Title.
2-URL/web Address.
3- Headings.
4-Text/Body.
5-Link Text.
6- Image Alt Text.
7-Page Descriptions:  keyword in meta elements.
5- Length of the document:  more detailed the document is, more will be the probability of it to be ranked.
 

Final Words:

Search engines are the most powerful and incredible source of information’s in this technology infused era. Our world literally revolves around the search engines and we owe the search engines a lot.
So, for at least once in your lifetime, we must thank this virtual thing (Search Engine ofcourse) and their developers (pioneers of this era) for making our life easy.
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Thank you.
Keep visiting. Stay connected.

Also read: Everything You Need To Know About System BIOS.

Sources :

                https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archie_search_engine
                http://www.wordstream.com/articles/internet-search-engines-history

               https://www.google.co.in/insidesearch/howsearchworks/thestory/